Solar System

  1. Uranus is tilted on its side

Uranus appears to be a featureless blue ball upon first glance, but this gas giant of the outer solar system is pretty weird upon closer inspection. First, the planet rotates on its side for reasons scientists haven’t quite figured out. The most likely explanation is that it underwent some sort of one or more titanic collisions in the ancient past. In any case, the tilt makes Uranus unique among the solar system planets. Uranus also has tenuous rings, which were confirmed when the planet passed in front of a star (from Earth’s perspective) in 1977; as the star’s light winked on and off repeatedly, astronomers realized there was more than just a planet blocking its starlight. More recently, astronomers spotted storms in Uranus’ atmosphere several years after its closest approach to the sun, when the atmosphere would have been heated the most.

2) Jupiter’s moon Io has towering volcanic eruptions

For those of us used to Earth’s relatively inactive moon, Io’s chaotic landscape may come as a huge surprise. The Jovian moon has hundreds of volcanoes and is considered the most active moon in the solar system, sending plumes up to 250 miles into its atmosphere . Some spacecraft have caught the moon erupting; the Pluto-bound New Horizons craft caught a glimpse of Io bursting when it passed by in 2007.

Io’s eruptions come from the immense gravity the moon is exposed to, being nestled in Jupiter’s gravitational well. The moon’s insides tense up and relax as it orbits closer to, and farther from, the planet, generating enough energy for volcanic activity. Scientists are still trying to figure out how heat spreads through Io’s interior, though, making it difficult to predict where the volcanoes exist using scientific models alone.

3) Mars has the biggest volcano (that we know of)

While Mars seems quiet now, we know that in the past something caused gigantic volcanoes to form and erupt. This includes Olympus Mons, the biggest volcano ever discovered in the solar system. At 374 miles (602 km) across, the volcano is comparable to the size of Arizona. It’s 16 miles (25 kilometers) high, or triple the height of Mount Everest, the tallest mountain on Earth. Volcanoes on Mars can grow to such immense size because gravity is much weaker on the Red Planet than it is on Earth. But how those volcanoes came to be in the first place is not well known. There is a debate as to whether Mars has a global plate tectonic system and whether it is active.

4). Mars also has the longest valley

If you thought the Grand Canyon was big, that’s nothing compared to Valles Marineris. At 2,500 miles (4,000 km) long, this immense system of Martian canyons is more than 10 times as long as the Grand Canyon on Earth. Valles Marineris escaped the notice of early Mars spacecraft (which flew over other parts of the planet) and was finally spotted by the global mapping mission Mariner 9 in 1971. And what a sight it was to miss — Valles Marineris is about as long as the United States!

The lack of active plate tectonics on Mars makes it tough to figure out how the canyon formed. Some scientists even think that a chain of volcanoes on the other side of the planet, known as the Tharsis Ridge, somehow bent the crust from the opposite side of Mars, thus creating Valles Marineris. More close-up study is needed to learn more, but you can’t send a rover over there easily.

5) Venus has super-powerful winds

Venus is a hellish planet with a high-temperature, high-pressure environment on its surface. Ten of the Soviet Union’s heavily shielded Venera spacecraft lasted only a few minutes on its surface when they landed there in the 1970s. But even above its surface, the planet has a bizarre environment. Scientists have found that its upper winds flow 50 times faster than the planet’s rotation. The European Venus Express spacecraft (which orbited the planet between 2006 and 2014) tracked the winds over long periods and detected periodic variations. It also found that the hurricane-force winds appeared to be getting stronger over time.

6) There is water ice everywhere

Water ice was once considered a rare substance in space, but now we know we just weren’t looking for it in the right places. In fact, water ice exists all over the solar system. Ice is a common component of comets and asteroids, for example. But we know that not all ice is the same. Close-up examination of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko by the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft, for example, revealed a different kind of water ice than what is found on Earth. That said, we’ve spotted water ice all over the solar system. It’s in permanently shadowed craters on Mercury and the moon, although we don’t know if there’s enough to support colonies in those places. Mars also has ice at its poles, in frost and likely below the surface dust. Even smaller bodies in the solar system have ice – Jupiter’s moon Europa, Saturn’s moon Enceladus, and the dwarf planet Ceres, among others.

7) Spacecraft have visited every planet

We’ve been exploring space for more than 60 years, and have been lucky enough to get close-up pictures of dozens of celestial objects. Most notably, we’ve sent spacecraft to all of the planets in our solar system — Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune — as well as two dwarf planets, Pluto and Ceres. The bulk of the flybys came from NASA’s twin Voyager spacecraft, which left Earth in 1977 and are still transmitting data from beyond the solar system in interstellar space. Between them, the Voyagers clocked visits to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, thanks to an opportune alignment of the outer planets.

8) There could be life in the solar system, somewhere

So far, scientists have found no evidence that life exists elsewhere in the solar system. But as we learn more about how “extreme” microbes live in underwater volcanic vents or in frozen environments, more possibilities open up for where they could live on other planets. These aren’t the aliens people once feared lived on Mars, but microbial life in the solar system is a possibility. Microbial life is now considered so likely on Mars that scientists take special precautions to sterilize spacecraft before sending them over there. That’s not the only place, though. With several icy moons scattered around the solar system, it’s possible there are microbes somewhere in the oceans of Jupiter’s Europa, or perhaps underneath the ice at Saturn’s Enceladus, among other locations.

9) Mercury is still shrinking

For many years, scientists believed that Earth was the only tectonically active planet in the solar system. That changed after the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft did the first orbital mission at Mercury, mapping the entire planet in high definition and getting a look at the features on its surface. In 2016, data from MESSENGER (which had crashed into Mercury as planned in April 2015) revealed cliff-like landforms known as fault scarps. Because the fault scarps are relatively small, scientists are sure that they weren’t created that long ago and that the planet is still contracting 4.5 billion years after the solar system was formed.

10) There are mountains on Pluto

Pluto is a tiny world at the edge of the solar system, so at first it was thought that the dwarf planet would have a fairly uniform environment. That changed when NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft flew by there in 2015, sending back pictures that altered our view of Pluto forever. [Destination Pluto: NASA’s New Horizons Mission in Pictures] Among the astounding discoveries were icy mountains that are 11,000 feet (3,300 meters) high, indicating that Pluto must have been geologically active as little as 100 million years ago. But geological activity requires energy, and the source of that energy inside Pluto is a mystery. The sun is too far away from Pluto to generate enough heat for geological activity, and there are no large planets nearby that could have caused such disruption with gravity.

Humen Body Facts

Baby Bones

A Human Body has 99 more bones than an adult.

A baby’s skeleton is mostly made up of cartilage. As a person grows up, most of this cartilage turns into adult bone through a process called ossification. This process results in the fusing of certain bones. Consequently, newborn babies have around 305 bones, while an adult has just 206 bones.

A Few Small Pieces

An adult human being is made of approximately 7,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms. (For reference, that’s 7 Octillion, or more than 7 trillion trillion.)

Obviously, this varies based on the size of the person and their body composition

Born To Be Astronauts

We’ve all seen the movies: if you’re ever thrown out into the vacuum of space, you can basically expect to disintegrate, right? Or your blood will boil, or something.

Not true! Turns out, we’re made of tougher stuff than Hollywood seems to think. For example, although many liquids do boil in open space, our blood is kept in check by our circulatory system and would, therefore, be OK. Freezing isn’t a concern either, as a vacuum actually acts as a pretty good insulator.

It’s not all good news though: your death would still be pretty gruesome. The lack of air will render you unconscious in about 15 seconds… before you asphyxiate and die in about a minute. Then your body would float alone through the vast emptiness of space until… Look, it gets ugly. That’s all we’ll say about that.

Noses > Eyes

Researchers estimate that the average human being can distinguish between 1 trillion different odors. This is much more acute than the human eye, which can distinguish only about 10 million different colors.

Noses truly are the vanilla of the human body: wildly underappreciated, and they smell great.

Humans Are Gross

Ready to get grossed out?

In a lifetime, an average person produces about 25,000 quarts of saliva—enough to fill two swimming pools. We also produce about a liter of mucus per day.

Interestingly enough, though, all that saliva plays an absolutely crucial role in keeping us clean. Consequently, people who have low levels of saliva are far more vulnerable to oral infections and cavities.

Mining The Body

Your body has enough iron in it to forge a metal nail that is 3-inches long. You also have enough sulfur to kill all fleas on an average dog, enough carbon to make 900 pencils, enough potassium to fire a toy cannon, enough fat to make 7 bars of soap, enough phosphorous to make 2,200 match heads, and enough water to fill a ten-gallon tank.

Close Your Eyes

We all have tiny mites living in our eyelashes. These little mites actually aren’t too choosey; they’ll live anywhere as long as they have access hair follicles. They’re found on other parts of the body and on a host of other mammals.

The Strongest Muscle In The Body

Pound for pound, the strongest muscle in the human body is the masseter (jaw muscle). It can clamp your chompers shut with 55 pounds of force on the incisors and 200 pounds of force on the molars.

Stinky Humans

Sweat itself is odorless. It’s the bacteria on the skin that mingles with it and produces body odor. Bacteria that are naturally present on our skin thrive in sweaty regions.

Growing Strong

Your ears and nose will never stop growing until the day you die.

In fact, your earlobes will also elongate from gravity.

Don’t Lick The Gun

Similar to fingerprints, everyone also has a unique tongue print. It may be some time before your local police station starts taking tongue prints, but research on the required 3-D imaging technology is already being developed and tested.

Remember: if you’re ever going to get involved in a million-dollar art heist, or some kind of grisly murder, absolutely do not lick the crime scene.

Steel Bones

Ounce for ounce, human bones are stronger than steel. A cubic inch of bone can bear a load of 19,000 lbs.—roughly the weight of five pickup trucks.

Reminder: this is not a dare. Do not (for example) ask your friends to drive 5 loaded pickup trucks over your forearm. It won’t end well.

Brain Power

Your brain accounts for only 2% of your body weight, yet it uses 20% of the total oxygen and blood in your body.

It’s fascinating. That little grey blob weighs just about 4 pounds, and yet is quite possibly responsible for essentially all of our success as a species.

This also shows that, at least when it comes to brain power, bigger is not always better. Cows, whales, and elephants (in addition to many other creatures) all have much bigger brains than we do. And yet we eat steak like it’s no big deal. Guess we’re winning, right?

The Ultimate Betrayal

Within three days of death, the enzymes that once digested your dinner begin to eat you. Ruptured cells will become food for the bacteria in your gut, which will release enough noxious gas to bloat your body and force your eyes to bulge outward.

Whatever happened to loyalty?

Super Storage

In a lifetime, your brain’s long-term memory can hold up to 1 quadrillion (1 million billion) bits of information.

And for such a powerful computer, it’s also incredibly efficient. The entire apparatus of your brain is operated by roughly the same amount of power as a 10-Watt lightbulb.

Not-So Hairless Apes

It might not seem like it when you look around, but human beings actually have just as many hair follicles as a chimpanzee.

Here’s the catch: our hairs are, for the most part, incredibly fine and light-colored. No one is quite sure why we lost our impressive fur coats, though. Some think it was an adaption to help us sweat more effeciently. Others say it was a method for avoiding fleas and ticks.

Whatever the reason, it’s a fun thought.

Amazing Facts From Around The World

In 1948, before Pakistan had the facilities, The Reserve Bank of India issued provisional notes for the Pakistani Rupee.It put the stamp of Government of Pakistan. They started printing it later in 1948.

In 2011, a woman named Aimee Davison purchased a ‘non visible’ piece of art for $10,000.

She was promised an entire wing of the museum named in her honour & a title card with a description of the piece. The artwork in question was “Fresh Air”.

In 2006, a woman lit matches in a flight to cover her fart smell. That forced an emergency landing.

She claimed she had ‘a medical condition’ that apparently involved flatulence

Saddam Hussein was the author of a romantic novel called Zabiba and the King.

It was originally published anonymously in Iraq in 2000.

Cockroaches were there 120 million years before dinosaurs roamed the earth.

And they survived!

Global Warming helped settle a land dispute between India and Bangladesh. The area in question was New Moore, or South Talpatti. But the island drowned because of global warming in 2010.

No land left, no dispute left.

Once, carrots were purple.

Until late in the 16th century Dutch growers took mutant strains of the purple carrot and gradually developed them into the sweet, plump, orange variety we have today.

The 110-acre ‘Snake Island’ in Sao Paulo has 4,000 snakes. Which is one snake for every 6 square yards. It is one of the world’s deadliest islands.

It is also home to Golden Lancehead. Its venom is capable of melting human flesh.

Russia has a larger surface area than Pluto.

Pluto is 2370 kilometres (1473 miles) across, which can easily fit within Russia’s largest east-to-west radius of 10,000 km and the north-to-south size of 4000 km.

The world’s largest family stays in India. The husband has 39 wives and 94 children.

Ziona Chana also has 94 children, 14-daughters-in-law and 33 grandchildren. They live in a 100-room, four storey house set amidst the hills of Baktwang village in the Indian state of Mizoram. 

Amazon holds a patent on 1-click buying; Apple pays them licensing fees.

They licensed 1-click ordering to Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) in 2000 for use on its online store.

Speaking of patents, Halliburton Company once tried to patent patenting.

The company filed for a patent on “patent acquisition and assertion by a (non-inventor) first party against a second party

Brad Pitt was banned from entering China for his role in the movie Seven Years in Tibet (1997).

He was banned along with Director Jean-Jacques Annaud and co-actor David Thewlis for portraying the Dalai Lama in positive light.

A man planted 7,000 trees to make a guitar shaped forest as tribute to his wife. 

Sadly, Mr Ureta admits he has only ever seen photographs of the complete guitar as a traumatic event in his youth has left him with a fear of flying.

SKIN Facts

AMAZING FACTS ABOUT SKIN, HAIR, AND NAILS FOR KIDS

Need help with school reports and other fun projects? Check out these quick facts about skin, hair, and nails!

Check out “About skin, hair, and nails” for lots of good background information on each of these important parts of your body and how you can take care of them. This information also might help you work on a school or scouting project. Here are some quick facts and numbers that you also might be able to use.

Acne (pimples and zits)

  • Acne is a very common skin problem, affecting about 40 million to 50 million Americans.
  • Nearly 85 percent of people have acne at some point in their lives.  It usually starts in puberty but can affect people in their 20s, 30s, 40s and even 50s.
  • Acne usually appears on the face, chest and back.
  • By the mid-teens, more than 40 percent of kids have acne or scars from acne that need to be treated by a dermatologist, a doctor who takes care of the skin.
  • In 2004, people spent $2.2 billion to treat acne.

Skin cancer

  • More than 1 million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed in the United States this year.
  • 1 out of 5 Americans will have skin cancer at some point in their life.
  • Melanoma is the most serious kind of skin cancer, and one in 58 people will get melanoma at some time during their life.
  • Melanoma is the most common kind of cancer for young adults who are 25-29 years old.  It is the second most common kind of cancer for teens and young adults who are 15-29 years old.
  • One American dies of melanoma almost every hour (every 62 minutes). In 2008, about 8,420 people died from melanoma.

Tanning beds

  • Even though they are bad for skin and can cause skin cancer, each day about 1 million Americans use tanning beds.
  • Almost 28 million people tan indoors in the U.S. every year; 2.3 million are teens.
  • Nearly 70 percent of tanning salon patrons are girls and women, primarily aged 16 to 29 years.
  • Indoor tanning before the age of 35 has been associated with a significant increase in the risk of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer.
  • Studies also have found that indoor tanning can make skin look old, hurt the immune system (the part of the body that helps fight infections), and damage eyes.

Hair and nails

  • It’s normal to lose 50 to 100 hairs a day but anyone who notices thinning hair should see a dermatologist.
  • Hairstyles that pull the hair, like ponytails and braids, can cause hair loss.
  • Fingernails grow 0.1 millimeters each day and toenails grow 1 millimeter a month. Fingernails grow faster than toenails, and nails grow faster during the summer than the winter.

Tattoos and piercings

  • When a group of 500 grown-ups ages 18-50 were asked about tattoos and piercings, 24 percent said they had tattoos and 48 percent had a piercing in the ears or another part of the body.
  • Almost one in five (17 percent) people with tattoos have thought about having them removed.
  • People with tattoos are six times more likely to have hepatitis C, a liver disease that kills 10,000 people a year.
  • Common problems with piercings include infections and allergies to metal.

10 Amazing Facts

  1. In 1939, Hitler’s nephew wrote an article called “Why I Hate My Uncle.” He came to the U.S., served in the Navy, and settled on Long Island.

2) In the 1980s, Pablo Escobar’s Medellin Cartel was spending $2,500 a month on rubber bands just to hold all their cash.

3) The inventor of the AK-47 has said he wishes he’d invented something to help farmers instead — “for example a lawnmower.

4) A murder suspect was convicted after the broken-off leg of a grasshopper in his pants cuff turned out to be a perfect match for an insect found near the victim’s body

5) In 1907, an ad campaign for Kellogg’s Corn Flakes offered a free box of cereal to any woman who would wink at her grocer

6) Silver Bells” was called “Tinkle Bells” until co-composer Jay Livingston’s wife told him “tinkle” had another meaning

7) How did Curious George get to America? He was captured in Africa by The Man With the Yellow Hat — with his yellow hat

8) Only one McDonald’s in the world has turquoise arches. Government officials in Sedona, Arizona, thought the yellow would look bad with the natural red rock of the city.

9) Brazil couldn’t afford to send its athletes to the 1932 Olympics in Los Angeles. So they loaded their ship with coffee and sold it along the way

10) New Mexico State’s first graduating class in 1893 had only one student—and he was shot and killed before graduation

knowledge Facts

1) Oranges were originally green.

The first oranges ever imported from to the West were from Southeast Asia and were tangerine-pomelo hybrids that were green in color. In fact, oranges grown in warmer parts of the world such as Vietnam and Thailand stay green throughout their lifetime.

2) You can fire an arrow around an object to hit a target.

Both English and Arabic historic sources have mentioned skilled archers curving arrows around objects.It has become a practice among some modern-day archers who have proved it can be done.In fact, an arrow can even be fired with a 180 degree curve to hit an object on the other side of a wall – amazing right?!

3) The first ever 3D film was released in cinemas in 1922.

Released in September of that year, The Power of Love was a silent film and was released in cinemas worldwide.It even came with alternative ending that was decided by closing one eye or the other!Sadly, the film is lost and hasn’t been found for decades!

4) Scientists genetically modified goats to spin spider silk from their udders.

US Professor Randy Lewis transplanted a gene into the goats from a spider that allows the goats to produce milk containing an extra protein.

This is then extracted from the goat milk and spun into spider silk thread

5) “OMG” was first used in writing in 1917.

Although people might have said it before then, the popular acronym for “Oh My God” was first used in writing in a letter to Winston Churchill in 1917.

It was used by John Arbuthnot Fisher, a retired Admiral of the British Navy, who said in his letter “I hear that a new order of Knighthood is on the tapis, O.M.G. (Oh! My God!)”.

6) In 1960, a cow got hit by a chunk of falling U.S. satellite in Cuba.

This was during a time where tensions between Havana and Washington were at their highest.

So the Cubans decided to make the best out of a bad situation and had a good laugh at their American neighbors.

They paraded a cow through the Cuban streets with a sign on it that said “Eisenhower, you murdered one of my sisters!”

7) In 1997 a cargo ship lost 4.8 million Lego bits in a storm. They are still washing up today.

The container ship Tokio Express was hauling cargo across stormy seas on February the 13th, when a rogue wave crashed over the decks and caused some of her cargo to become loose and wash overboard.

One such container contained a shipment of lego including octopuses, dragons, flippers and flowers.

These pieces are often found on the beaches of Cornwall in the UK, whenever there’s a particularly bad storm.

8) In England, pigeon poop is property of the Crown.

This is because pigeon poop could be used to make gunpowder.

Because of this, King George I declared all pigeon poop to be property of the Crown in the 18th Century.

9) A man survived being hit by a car and thrown 118 feet.

Off-duty paramedic Matthew McKnight was hit by a car travelling 70 miles per hour and was catapulted 118 feet!

He suffered some fairly serious injuries but amazingly managed to recover.

He now holds the Guinness World Record for furthest distance thrown by a car!

10) Belgium once tried using cats to deliver mail.

In the 1870s, the town of Liège came up with the idea of employing felines as their new mail couriers.

The mail was loaded into waterproof bags that were tied around the kitties’ little collars and they were sent to their destination.

However, this was quickly dropped as the Cats  proved slower and more unreliable than human post couriers. Go figure.

Unknown Facts

  1. Germany had highest numbers of asylum requests in 2015

2) Lighting hasn’t brought down a plane since 1963, due to careful engineering that lets the electric charge of a lightning bolt run through the plane and out of it

3) For many Icelanders, WW2 is actually known a “the blessed war” because the country has the war to thank for its independence

4) When Steve Jobs was at his deathbed, he asked for five different oxygen masks so that he could choose the one with the best design.

5) If you want to learn about monsters and ghouls in real life, you can get a PhD in Parapsychology at the University of Edinburgh.

6) In 1916, there was a proposed Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would put all acts of war to a national vote. Anyone voting “yes” would have to register as a volunteer for service in the army.

7) An IKEA in the Netherlands had to cancel their 1 euro breakfast special because it attracted too many customers and caused traffic jams on the highway.

8) After just under a year in space, astronaut Scott Kelly’s gene expression changed significantly and it’s different to his identical twin brother’s DNA.

9) Amazon’s largest warehouse is the size of 17 American football fields.

10) When you first meet people it is common to forget their names – a phenomenon called the ‘next-in-line’ effect. This is because people are too worried about themselves, and what they’ll say next, to focus on remembering the names of people they’re introduced to.

RUNDOM FACTS

1) The scientific term for brain freeze is “sphenopalatine ganglioneuralgia

2) Canadians say “sorry” so much that a law was passed in 2009 declaring that an apology can’t be used as evidence of admission to guilt

3) Back when dinosaurs existed, there used to be volcanoes that were erupting on the moon

4) The only letter that doesn’t appear on the periodic table is J

5)One habit of intelligent humans is being easily annoyed by people around them, but saying nothing in order to avoid a meaningless argument.

6) If a Polar Bear and a Grizzly Bear mate, their offspring is called a “Pizzy Bear

7) There were two AI chatbots created by Facebook to talk to each other, but they were shut down after they started communicating in a language they made for themselves

8) Sunflowers can help clean radioactive soil. Japan is using this to rehabilitate Fukashima. Almost 10,000 packets of sunflower seeds have been sold to the people of the city

9) The Buddha commonly depicted in statues and pictures is a different person entirely. The real Buddha was actually incredibly skinny because of self-deprivation

10) The largest known prime number has 17,425,170 digits. The new prime number is 2 multiplied by itself 57,885,161 times, minus 1.

RUNDOM FACTS

1) The scientific term for brain freeze is “sphenopalatine ganglioneuralgia

2) Canadians say “sorry” so much that a law was passed in 2009 declaring that an apology can’t be used as evidence of admission to guilt

3) Back when dinosaurs existed, there used to be volcanoes that were erupting on the moon

4) The only letter that doesn’t appear on the periodic table is J

5)One habit of intelligent humans is being easily annoyed by people around them, but saying nothing in order to avoid a meaningless argument.

6) If a Polar Bear and a Grizzly Bear mate, their offspring is called a “Pizzy Bear

7) There were two AI chatbots created by Facebook to talk to each other, but they were shut down after they started communicating in a language they made for themselves

8) Sunflowers can help clean radioactive soil. Japan is using this to rehabilitate Fukashima. Almost 10,000 packets of sunflower seeds have been sold to the people of the city

9) The Buddha commonly depicted in statues and pictures is a different person entirely. The real Buddha was actually incredibly skinny because of self-deprivation

10) The largest known prime number has 17,425,170 digits. The new prime number is 2 multiplied by itself 57,885,161 times, minus 1.